squash--壁球知识

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  squash 壁球

  racquet/racket 球拍

  front wall 前墙

  side wall 边墙

  service box 发球框

  quarter court 后场

  serve 发球

  shot 击球

  strike 击中

  bounce 反弹

  score 得分

  retrieve 防守

  The court size was codified in the 1920s at 975 cm (32 feet) and

  640 cm (21 feet) wide. The front wall has a "front wall line" 457

  cm (15 feet) above the floor, connected by a raking "front" line

  meeting the "out" line on the back wall at 213 cm (7 feet) above

  the floor. The front wall also has a "service line" whose top is

  183 cm (6 feet) above the floor with the "board" (the equivalent of

  a net) 48 cm (18.9 inches) high. The floor is marked with a

  transverse "half-court" line and further divided into two rear

  "quarter courts" and two "service boxes", as shown in the diagram

  above.

  The traditional "American" court for the U.S. game, (now

  referred to as "hardball

  squash") is a similar size, but narrower at 18 feet 6 inches

  (564 cm). The floor and wall markings differ slightly from the

  "International" court and the tin is lower, at 15 inches (38 cm)

  high. However, hardball squash was replaced by softball in America

  as the standard version of squash and has since almost completely

  died out.

  A "Converted Court" is the result of converting racquetball

  courts to squash. Racquetball courts are 20 feet (610 cm) wide and

  40 feet (1220 cm) in length, so it is relatively easy to install a

  back wall, producing a squash court of 20 feet (610 cm) wide by 32

  feet (975 cm) long.

  Standard rackets are governed by the rules of the game.

  Traditionally they were made of laminated timber (typically Ash),

  with a small strung area using natural gut strings. After a rule

  change in the mid-1980s, they are now almost always made of

  composite materials or metals (graphite, kevlar, titanium, boron)

  with synthetic strings. Modern rackets have maximum dimensions of

  686 mm (27.0 in.) long and 215 mm (8.5 in.) wide, with a maximum

  strung area of 500 square centimetres (approx. 90 sq. in.), the

  permitted maximum weight is 255 grams (approx. 9 oz.), but most

  weigh between 110 and 200 grams (4-7 oz.).

  Squash balls are 39.5 mm and

  40.5 mm in diametre, and weigh between 23 and

  25grams. They are made with two pieces of rubber compound, glued

  together to form a hollow sphere and buffed to a matte finish.

  Different balls are provided for varying temperature and

  atmospheric conditions and standards of play: more experienced

  players use slow balls that are smaller and have less bounce than

  those used by less experienced players (slower balls tend to die in

  court corners, rather than standing up to allow easier shots).

  Depending on its specific rubber composition, a squash ball may

  have the property that it bounces more at higher temperatures.

  Players tend to warm up balls by bouncing them on the ground prior

  to play. As a rally progresses, play is complicated as the ball

  usually becomes hotter and faster.

  Small coloured dots on the ball indicate its dynamic level

  (bounciness), and thus the standard of play for which it is suited.

  The recognised speed colours indicating the degree of dynamism

  are:

  

  A double yellow squash ball.

  Double Yellow - Extra super slow (very low bounce)

  Yellow - Super slow (low bounce)

  Green or White - slow (average bounce)

  Red - Medium (high bounce)

  Blue - Fast (very high bounce)

  Balls are manufactured to these standards by Prince, Dunlop, Pointfore,

  Wilson, and others. The

  "double-yellow dot ball", introduced in 2000, is currently the

  competition standard, replacing the earlier "yellow-dot" that was

  long considered the competition standard. There is also a

  high-altitude "orange dot" ball, used in places such as Mexico City,

  Calgary, Denver, and

  Johannesburg. In

  North America, the Dunlop "green dot" ball is often used at high

  altitude, as well.

  Other balls available are:

  Dunlop "Max Blue" (aimed at beginners), which is 12% larger and

  has 40% longer "hang time" than a "double-yellow dot ball" and has

  "instant bounce"

  Dunlop "Max Progress" (red) (for players wishing to improve

  their technique), which is 6% larger with a 20% longer hang-time

  than a "double-yellow dot ball" and has instant bounce

  Given the game's vigorousness, players must wear comfortable

  sports clothing and robust indoor (non-marking) sports shoes. In

  competition, men usually wear shorts and a t-shirt or a polo shirt.

  Women normally wear a skirt and a t-shirt or a tank top, or a

  sports dress. Towelling wrist and head bands may also be required

  in humid climates. Polycarbonate lens goggles are recommended, as

  players might be struck with a fast-swinging racket or the ball,

  that typically reaches speeds exceeding 200 km/h (125 mph). In the

  2004 Canary Wharf Squash Classic, John

  White was recorded driving balls at speeds over 270 km/h (170

  mph). Many squash venues mandate the use of eye protection and some

  association rules require that all juniors and doubles players must

  wear eye protection.

  The players usually spin a racket to decide who commences

  serving at the start of the match, and this player starts the first

  rally by electing to serve from either the left or right service

  box. For a legal serve, one of the server's feet must be in that

  box and, after being struck by the racket, the ball must strike the

  front wall above the service line and below the out line and land

  in the opposite quarter court, unless volleyed by the receiver.

  The players then take turns hitting the ball against the front

  wall (referred to as "rallying"). The ball may be volleyed (hit

  whilst still in the air) or hit after its first bounce and before

  the second. To be considered good, the ball must reach the

  front wall below the "out" line and above the "board" or "tin"

  before touching the floor. A ball landing on either the out line or

  the line above the tin, contrary to tennis, is considered to

  be out. The ball may also be struck against any of the other

  three walls before reaching the front wall. Shots that are first

  played off the side or back walls are referred to as "boasts" or

  "angles".

  The rally continues until a player is unable to return his or

  her opponent's shot or makes a mistake or a "let" or "stroke" is

  awarded by the referee for interference (see below).

  A point is scored only by the server (when the receiver is

  unable to return the ball to the front wall before it has bounced

  twice). When the receiver wins the rally, they are awarded only the

  right to serve. They may choose to serve from either service

  box.

  Games are usually played to 9 points (alternatively, the

  receiver may opt to call "set two" and play to 10 when the score

  first reaches 8-8). Competition matches are usually played to

  "best-of-five" (i.e., the player to win the most out of 5

  games).

  Alternatively, in the point-a-rally scoring system, points are

  scored by the winner of each rally, whether or not he or she

  served. Traditionally, PARS scoring was up to 15 points (or the

  receiver calls 15 or 17 when the game reaches 14-14). However, in

  2004, the PARS scoring was reduced to 11 for the professional game

  (if the game reaches 10-10, a player must win by two clear points).

  PARS is now used on the men's Professional Tour, and the tin height

  has been lowered by two inches for the men's professional

  tournaments (these changes have been made in a hope to shorten the

  length of the rallies and therefore the match). The women's

  Professional Tour, however, still uses the original "up to 9

  English scoring" and the original tin height.

  In the International game, club, doubles and recreational

  matches are usually played using the traditional British scoring

  system. Scoring systems and rules can be adapted subtly to

  accommodate shorter game time or multiple players. The British

  scoring is generally used for USSRA (United States Squash Racquets

  Association) matches.

  The strategy of the game is to hit the ball straight up the side

  walls to the back corners referred to as a "rail," straight drive,

  wall, or "length", then move to the centre of the court near the

  "T" to be well placed to retrieve the opponent's return. Attacking

  with soft or "short" shots to the front corners (referred to as

  "drop shots") causes the opponent to cover more of the court and

  may result in an outright winner. "Angle" shots are used for

  deception and again to cause the opponent to cover more of the

  court.

  A key strategy in squash is known as "dominating the T" (the

  intersection of the red lines near the centre of the court where

  the player is in the best position to retrieve the opponent's next

  shot). Skilled players will return a shot, and then move back

  toward the T before playing the next shot. From this

  position, the player can quickly access any part of the court to

  retrieve the opponent's next shot with a minimum of movement.

  Rallies between experienced players may involve 30 or more shots

  and therefore a very high premium is placed on fitness, both

  aerobic and anaerobic. As players become more skilled and, in

  particular, better able to retrieve shots, points often become a

  war of attrition. At higher levels of the game, the fitter player

  has a major advantage.

  Almost all players will fall into the following categories of

  style of play:

  "Retriever"- Usually a very fit player, plays patiently, can

  retrieve most shots hit by an opponent, but doesn't have a

  particularly strong attacking game.

  "Shooter" or "attacking player"- May be a patient player as

  well, but is more comfortable trying to hit winning shots or going

  for "nicks". Generally has very good shot accuracy and deception

  skills.

  "Power Player"- Tries to overpower their opponent by hitting

  the ball with extreme pace. Not known for their fitness, or

  patience.

  "All-Around Player"- Is comfortable playing all different

  styles and places, comfortable in all areas of the court.

  "Attritional Attacking"- Most professional players fit into

  this category, with the likes of David Palmer and James Willstrop;

  where they are prepared to rally down the wall, however as soon as

  the player leaves a loose ball inches from the side wall, they are

  ready to kill the ball into the nicks.

  Ability to change the direction of ball at the last instant is

  also important to off-balance the opponent. Expert players can

  anticipate the opponent's shot a few tenths of a second before the

  average player, giving them a chance to react sooner. Such skill is

  usually acquired by a lot of practice and game experience.